A bit of topology
May 5, 2012 2 Comments
This proof is due to Hillel Fürstenberg, and is topological.
Let’s define a topology on . We’ll declare any infinite arithmetic sequence to be open. That is, each set
is open. These are the basic open sets, so any open set can be obtained by taking unions and finite intersections of these. It’s not hard to see that a finite intersection of these is empty, or infinite. That is, there are no finite open sets other than .
Another fun fact about this topology is that each is also closed. Indeed
This is probably poor notation, but I mean that runs from to , but skips . So is the complement of an open set and hence closed. All I will really need is that is closed
Now, if there were only finitely many primes, then would be a closed set. This set consists of any number which is a multiple of some prime. It’s complement is which has to be open. This is a contradiction, because finite sets cannot be open. Cool, huh?